Non-traditional students in an online introductory course in Homeland Security used the DEAL model of critical reflection to describe (a) what they learned, (b) how they learned it, (c) why it matters, and (d) what they will do with what they learned. Online discussion of readings proved to be the most effective learning technique used in the course because it incorporated reflective practices and allowed application of real-life experiences.
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Maxfield, R. J. & Fisher, J. R. (2012). Employing critical reflection in an online emergency services course. Journal of Homeland Security Education, 1, 26-40, https://ijspre.org/employing-critical-reflection-in-an-online-emergency-services-course